Takes a scalar field as input and produces a vector field.

Mnemonic: the gradient shows the direction in which the function increases fastest.

Think of a color gradient going from white to black from left to right.

Therefore, it has to:

- take a scalar field as input. Otherwise, how do you decide which vector is larger than the other?
- output a vector field that contains the direction in which the scalar increases fastest locally at each point. This has to give out vectors, since we are talking about directions