Specifies the derivative in a direction normal to the boundary.

Can be used for elliptic partial differential equations and parabolic partial differential equations.

Sets both a Dirichlet boundary condition and a Neumann boundary condition for a single part of the boundary.

Can be used for hyperbolic partial differential equations.

We understand intuitively that this imposes stricter requirements on solutions, which makes it easier to guarantee uniqueness, but also harder to have existence. TODO intuitively why hyperbolic need this extra level of restriction.

Linear combination of a Dirichlet boundary condition and Neumann boundary condition at each point of the boundary.

Examples:

- heat equation when metal plaque is immersed in a large external environment of fixed temperature.In this case, the normal derivative at the boundary is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the boundary and the fixed temperature of the external environment.The result as time tends to infinity is that the temperature of the plaque tends to that of the environment.Shown a solved example in the FreeFem tutorial: doc.freefem.org/tutorials/thermalConduction.html (github.com/FreeFem/FreeFem-doc/blob/1d5996d8b891fd553fd318321249c2c30f693fc3/source/tutorials/thermalConduction.rst)

In the context of wave-like equations, an open-boundary condition is one that "lets the wave go through without reflection".

This condition is very useful when we want to simulate infinite domains with a numerical method. Ciro Santilli wants to do this all the time when trying to come up with demos for his physics writings.

Here are some resources that cover such boundary conditions:

- www.asc.tuwien.ac.at/~arnold/pdf/graz/graz.pdf lots of slides
- hplgit.github.io/wavebc/doc/pub/._wavebc_cyborg002.html mentions them and gives a 1D formula. It mentions that things get complicated in 2D and 3D TODO why.The other page: hplgit.github.io/wavebc/doc/pub/._wavebc_cyborg003.html shows solution demos.

Multiple boundary conditions for different parts of the boundary.