Specifies the derivative in a direction normal to the boundary.
Sets both a Dirichlet boundary condition and a Neumann boundary condition for a single part of the boundary.
We understand intuitively that this imposes stricter requirements on solutions, which makes it easier to guarantee uniqueness, but also harder to have existence. TODO intuitively why hyperbolic need this extra level of restriction.
Linear combination of a Dirichlet boundary condition and Neumann boundary condition at each point of the boundary.
In the context of wave-like equations, an open-boundary condition is one that "lets the wave go through without reflection".
This condition is very useful when we want to simulate infinite domains with a numerical method. Ciro Santilli wants to do this all the time when trying to come up with demos for his physics writings.
Here are some resources that cover such boundary conditions:
Multiple boundary conditions for different parts of the boundary.