Basically the operators are just analogous to the classical ones e.g. the classical:
becomes:
Besides the angular momentum in each direction, we also have the total angular momentum:
Then you have to understand what each one of those does to the each atomic orbital:
There is an uncertainty principle between the x, y and z angular momentums, we can only measure one of them with certainty at a time. Video 1. "Quantum Mechanics 7a - Angular Momentum I by ViaScience (2013)" justifies this intuitively by mentioning that this is analogous to precession: if you try to measure electrons e.g. with the Zeeman effect the precess on the other directions which you end up modifing.
TODO experiment. Likely Zeeman effect.
Video 1.
Quantum Mechanics 7a - Angular Momentum I by ViaScience (2013)
. Source.

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