Binds an amino acid to the correct corresponding tRNA sequence. Wikipedia mentions that humans have 20 of them, one for each proteinogenic amino acid.
Breaks up peptidoglycan present in the bacterial cell wall, which is thicker in Gram-positive bacteria, which is what this enzyme seems to target.
Part of the inate immune system.
It is present on basically everything that mammals and birds excrete, and it kills bacteria, both of which are reasons why it was discovered relatively early on.
With X-ray crystallography by David Chilton Phillips. The second protein to be resolved fter after myoglobin, and the first enzyme.
Phillips also published a lower resolution (6angstrom) of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes at about the same time: Structure of Some Crystalline Lysozyme-Inhibitor Complexes Determined by X-Ray Analysis At 6 Å Resolution (1965). The point of doing this is that it points out the active site of the enzyme. on Nature 181, 662-666. Paywalled as of 2022. Has some nice pictures in it. on Nature 206, 761-763. Paywalled as of 2022. Has some nice pictures in it.
From Wikipedia:
In humans, myoglobin is only found in the bloodstream after muscle injury.