One important quantum mechanics experiment, which using quantum effects explain the dependency of specific heat capacity on temperature, an effect which is not present in the Dulong-Petit law.
This is the solid-state analogue to the black-body radiation problem. It is also therefore a quantum mechanics-specific phenomenon.
Observation that all solids appear to have the same constant heat capacity per mole.
It can be seen as the limit case of an Einstein solid at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, the heat capacity depends on temperature.

Articles by others on the same topic (1)