# Materials science

## Quantum dot (Artificial quantum atom)

TODO WTF is this? How is it built? What is special about it?

## Plastic

www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbuiIhr0LVA 7 Different Types of Plastic and Their Uses by Orange Plastics Academy (2018) Does not mention packaging foams.

## Ferromagnetism

The Bohr–van Leeuwen theorem, discovered in the 1910s, showed that classical physics theories are unable to account for any form of magnetism, including ferromagnetism. Magnetism is now regarded as a purely quantum mechanical effect. Ferromagnetism arises due to two effects from quantum mechanics: spin and the Pauli exclusion principle.

## Ising model (1920)

Toy model of matter that exhibits phase transition in dimension 2 and greater. It does not provide numerically exact results by itself, but can serve as a tool to theorize existing and new phase transitions.
Each point in the lattice has two possible states: TODO insert image.
As mentioned at: stanford.edu/~jeffjar/statmech/intro4.html some systems which can be seen as modelled by it include:
• the spins direction (up or down) of atoms in a magnet, which can undergo phase transitions depending on temperature as that characterized by the Curie temperature and an externally applied magnetic field
Neighboring spins like to align, which lowers the total system energy.
• the type of atom at a lattice point in a 2-metal alloy, e.g. Fe-C (e.g. steel). TODO: intuition for the neighbour interaction? What likes to be with what? And aren't different phases in different crystal structures?
Also has some funky relations to renormalization TODO.
Bibliography:

## Solution of the Ising model

TODO what it means to solve an Ising model in general?
stanford.edu/~jeffjar/statmech/lec4.html gives some good notions:
• is the expectation value of the value. It is therefore a number between -1.0 an and 1.0, -1.0 means everything is always down, 0.0 means half up half down, and 1.0 means all up
• : correlation between neighboring states. TODO.

## Magnetic dipole (tiny idealized magnet)

A tiny idealized magnet! It is a very good model if you have a small strong magnet interacting with objects that are far away, notably other magnetic dipoles or a constant magnetic field.
The cool thing about this model is that we have simple explicit formulas for the magnetic field it produces, and for how this little magnet is affected by a magnetic field or by another magnetic dipole.
This is the perfect model for electron spin, but it can also be representative of macroscopic systems in the right circumstances.
The intuition for the name is likely that "dipole" means "both poles are on the same spot".

## Superconducting magnet

Applications: produce high magnetic fields for
• Magnetic resonance imaging, the most important commercial application as of the early 2020s
• more researchy applications as of the early 2020s:
As of the early 2020s, superconducting magnets predominantly use low temperature superconductors Nb-Ti and Nb-Sn, see also most important superconductor materials, but there were efforts underway to create practical high-temperature superconductor-based magnets as well: Section "High temperature superconductor superconducting magnet".
Wikipedia has done well for once:
The current to the coil windings is provided by a high current, very low voltage DC power supply, since in steady state the only voltage across the magnet is due to the resistance of the feeder wires. Any change to the current through the magnet must be done very slowly, first because electrically the magnet is a large inductor and an abrupt current change will result in a large voltage spike across the windings, and more importantly because fast changes in current can cause eddy currents and mechanical stresses in the windings that can precipitate a quench (see below). So the power supply is usually microprocessor-controlled, programmed to accomplish current changes gradually, in gentle ramps. It usually takes several minutes to energize or de-energize a laboratory-sized magnet.

## Oxford Instruments (1959)

They are pioneers in making superconducting magnets, physicist from the university taking obsolte equipment from the uni to his garage and making a startup kind of situation. This was particularly notable for this time and place.
They became a major supplier for Magnetic resonance imaging applications.

## Planck's law (1900)

The Quantum Story by Jim Baggott (2011) page 9 mentions that Planck apparently immediately recognized that Planck constant was a new fundamental physical constant, and could have potential applications in the definition of the system of units (TODO where was that published):
Planck wrote that the constants offered: 'the possibility of establishing units of length, mass, time and temperature which are independent of speciﬁc bodies or materials and which necessarily maintain their meaning for all time and for all civilizations, even those which are extraterrestrial and nonhuman, constants which therefore can be called "fundamental physical units of measurement".'
This was a visionary insight, and was finally realized in the 2019 redefinition of the SI base units.
TODO how can it be derived from theoretical principles alone? There is one derivation at; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck%27s_law#Derivation but it does not seem to mention the Schrödinger equation at all.

## Rayleigh-Jeans law (1900)

Derived from classical first principles, matches Planck's law for low frequencies, but diverges at higher frequencies.

• The Quantum Story by Jim Baggott (2011) page 10 mentions:
Early examples of such cavities included rather expensive closed cylinders made from porcelain and platinum.
The study of cavity radiation was not just about establishing theoretical principles, however. It was also of interest to the German Bureau of Standards as a reference for rating electric lamps.
• 1859-60 Gustav Kirchhoff demonstrated that the ratio of emitted to absorbed energy depends only on the frequency of the radiation and the temperature inside the cavity
• 1896 Wien approximation seems to explain existing curves well
• 1900 expriments by Otto Lummer and Ernst Pringsheim show Wien approximation is bad for lower frequencies
• 1900-10-07 Heinrich Rubens visits Planck in Planck's villa in the Berlin suburb of Grünewald and informs him about new experimental he and Ferdinand Kurlbaum obtained, still showing that Wien approximation is bad
• 1900 Planck's law matches Lummer and Pringsheim's experiments well. Planck forced to make the "desperate" postulate that energy is exchanged in quantized lumps. Not clear that light itself is quantized however, he thinks it might be something to do with allowed vibration modes of the atoms of the cavity rather.
• 1900 Rayleigh-Jeans law derived from classical first principles matches Planck's law for low frequencies, but diverges at higher frequencies.

## Einstein solid

One important quantum mechanics experiment, which using quantum effects explain the dependency of specific heat capacity on temperature, an effect which is not present in the Dulong-Petit law.
This is the solid-state analogue to the black-body radiation problem. It is also therefore a quantum mechanics-specific phenomenon.

## Dulong-Petit law

Observation that all solids appear to have the same constant heat capacity per mole.
It can be seen as the limit case of an Einstein solid at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, the heat capacity depends on temperature.

## Debye model

Wikipedia mentions that it is completely analogous to Planck's law, since both are