Best mathematical explanation: Section "Spin comes naturally when adding relativity to quantum mechanics".

Physics from Symmetry by Jakob Schwichtenberg (2015) chapter 3.9 "Elementary particles" has an amazing summary of the preceding chapters the spin value has a relation to the representations of the Lorentz group, which encodes the spacetime symmetry that each particle observes. These symmetries can be characterized by small integer numbers:

As usual, we don't know why there aren't elementary particles with other spins, as we could construct them.

Bibliography:

Leads to the Klein-Gordon equation.

Leads to the Dirac equation.

Leads to the Proca equation.

Theorized for the graviton.

More interestingly, how is that implied by the Stern-Gerlach experiment?

physics.stackexchange.com/questions/266359/when-we-say-electron-spin-is-1-2-what-exactly-does-it-mean-1-2-of-what/266371#266371 suggests that half could either mean:

- at limit of large
`l`

for the Schrödinger equation solution for the hydrogen atom the difference between each angular momentum is twice that of the eletron's spin. Not very satisfactory. - it comes directly out of the Dirac equation. This is satisfactory. :-)

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