Many people believe that knowledge graphs are a key element of AGI: Knowledge graph as a component of AGI.
Related:
This is one of those idealistic W3C specifications with super messy implementations all over.
Example: rdf/vcard.ttl.
Implemented by:
In this tutorial, we will use the Jena SPARQL hello world as a starting point. Tested on Apache Jena 4.10.0.
Basic query on rdf/vcard.ttl RDF Turtle data to find the person with full name "John Smith":
sparql --data=rdf/vcard.ttl --query=<( printf '%s\n' 'SELECT ?x WHERE { ?x <http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#FN> "John Smith" }')
Output:
---------------------------------
| x                             |
=================================
| <http://somewhere/JohnSmith/> |
---------------------------------
To avoid writing http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0# a billion times as queries grow larger, we can use the PREFIX syntax:
sparql --data=rdf/vcard.ttl --query=<( printf '%s\n' '
PREFIX vc: <http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#>
SELECT ?x
WHERE { ?x vc:FN "John Smith" }
')
Output:
---------------------------------
| x                             |
=================================
| <http://somewhere/JohnSmith/> |
---------------------------------
Bibliography:
The CLI tools don't appear to be packaged for Ubuntu 23.10? Annoying... There is a package libapache-jena-java but it doesn't contain any binaries, only Java library files.
To run the CLI tools easily we can download the prebuilt:
sudo apt install openjdk-22-jre
wget https://dlcdn.apache.org/jena/binaries/apache-jena-4.10.0.zip
unzip apache-jena-4.10.0.zip
cd apache-jena-4.10.0
export JENA_HOME="$(pwd)"
export PATH="$PATH:$(pwd)/bin"
and we can confirm it works with:
sparql -version
which outputs:
Apache Jena version 4.10.0
If your Java is too old then then running sparql with the prebuilts fails with:
Error: A JNI error has occurred, please check your installation and try again
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError: arq/sparql has been compiled by a more recent version of the Java Runtime (class file version 55.0), this version of the Java Runtime only recognizes class file versions up to 52.0
        at java.lang.ClassLoader.defineClass1(Native Method)
        at java.lang.ClassLoader.defineClass(ClassLoader.java:756)
        at java.security.SecureClassLoader.defineClass(SecureClassLoader.java:142)
        at java.net.URLClassLoader.defineClass(URLClassLoader.java:473)
        at java.net.URLClassLoader.access$100(URLClassLoader.java:74)
        at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:369)
        at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:363)
        at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
        at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(URLClassLoader.java:362)
        at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:418)
        at sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader.loadClass(Launcher.java:352)
        at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:351)
        at sun.launcher.LauncherHelper.checkAndLoadMain(LauncherHelper.java:621)
Build from source is likely something like:
sudo apt install maven openjdk-22-jdk
git clone https://github.com/apache/jena --branch jena-4.10.0 --depth 1
cd jena
mvn clean install
TODO test it.
If you make the mistake of trying to run the source tree without build:
git clone https://github.com/apache/jena --branch jena-4.10.0 --depth 1
cd jena
export JENA_HOME="$(pwd)"
export PATH="$PATH:$(pwd)/apache-jena/bin"
it fails with:
Error: Could not find or load main class arq.sparql
as per: users.jena.apache.narkive.com/T5TaEszT/sparql-tutorial-querying-datasets-error-unrecognized-option-graph
They have a tutorial at: jena.apache.org/tutorials/sparql.html
Once you've done the Apache Jena CLI tools setup we can query all users with Full Name (FN) "John Smith" directly fom the rdf/vcard.ttl Turtle RDF file with the rdf/vcard.rq SPARQL query:
sparql --data=rdf/vcard.ttl --query=rdf/vcard.rq
and that outputs:
---------------------------------
| x                             |
=================================
| <http://somewhere/JohnSmith/> |
---------------------------------
Groups concepts by hyponymy and hypernymy and meronymy and holonymy. That actually makes a lot of sense! TODO: is there a clear separation between hyponymy and meronymy?
Does not contain intermediat scientific terms, only very common ones, e.g. no mention, of "Josephson effect", "photoelectric effect"

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