Repeat this mantra:
Only descentralize when inevitable.
Only descentralize when inevitable.
Only descentralize when inevitable.
This is what society gets for not using open knowledge: some of its best minds will be bound to waste endless hours reversing some useless technology.
With that said, even when you do have the source code, reading run logs and using debuggers are a sort of reverse engineering at heart.
One of the most jaw dropping reverse engineering projects Ciro has ever seen is the Super Mario 64 reverse engineering project.
How software engineers view science:
Science is the reverse engineering of nature.
Ciro Santilli had once assigned this as one of Ciro Santilli's best random thoughts, but he later found that Wikipedia actually says exactly that: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_engineering ("similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon") so maybe that is where Ciro picked it up unconsciously in the first place.
A hot hot place.
Founded by Craig Venter by joining up other existing institutes.
These people don't fuck around.
Poor renaming choice.
This is the dude that made many of the amazing WEHImovies animation.
Unfortunately, the process appears to be quite manual and laborious, more art than simulation, based on the software list used: www.drewberry.com/faq
Video 1. Animations of unseeable biology by Drew Berry (2021) Source. Presented at TED.
Ah, some of the coolest places on Earth?
Ciro Santilli sometimes fantasizes of having worked there in their golden years...
Original headquarters and laboratories: 463 West Street in New York, Manhattan area. On Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman Feynman mentions that in 1941 they could see the construction of the George Washington Bridge, presumably from that building, when William Shockley brought him over to visit to get a job there. However, the actual
101 Crawfords Corner Rd Holmdel, NJ 07733 USA
It started with radio research apparently, including Karl Guthe Jansky.
Video 1. Holmdel 20th Anniversary, a history of the legendary Bell Labs facility designed by Eero Saarinen by AT&T Tech Channel (1982) Source.
600 Mountain Ave bldg 5, New Providence, NJ 07974, United States.
Became headquarters in 1967,
Drone footage: www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0Ld2KFjaC8 Bell LABS Headquarters Murray Hill NJ in 4K Drone Flight by ESTOUCHFPV (2017)
Notable inventions made there:
These people are serious.
Where nuclear weapons and nuclear power, and a ton of derived research is made.
This is where they moved the Chicago Pile-1 after they decided it might be a bad idea to run highly experimental nuclear reactions right in the middle of one of the most populous cities of the United States.
After it was reassembled, the Chicago Pile-1 was renamed as Chicago Pile 2 (CP2).
So more precisely, it is a continuation of the Metallurgical Laboratory.
It's still not that far though, only about 20 kilometers, and today is also a populated area.
Ciro Santilli maintains that they chose the site because the name is so cool. Wikipedia says it is derived from the Forest of Argonne, maybe it even shared etymology with the element argon.
Founded partly due to the influence of Edward Teller who thought Los Alamos National Laboratory was not making good progress on thermonuclear weapons, large part of which was developed there.
Located in Tennessee in the East of the United States.
This is where the X-10 Graphite Reactor was located.
An intermediate step between the nuclear chain reaction prototype Chicago Pile-1 and the full blown mass production at Hanford site. Located in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Produced the enriched uranium used for Little Boy, located in the area/predecessor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Name of the site during the Manhattan Project.
Ciro Santilli is a fan of this late 2010's buzzword.
It basically came about because of the endless stream of useless software startups made since the 2000's by one or two people with no investments with the continued increase in computers and Internet speeds until the great wall was reached.
Deep tech means not one of those. More specifically, it means technologies that require significant investment in expensive materials and laboratory equipment to progress, such as molecular biology technologies and quantum computing.
And it basically comes down to technologies that wrestle with the fundamental laws of physics rather than software data wrangling.
Computers are of course limited by the laws of physics, but those are much hidden by several layers of indirection.
Full visibility, and full control, make computer tasks be tasks that eventually always work out more or less as expected.
The same does not hold true when real Physics is involved.
Physics is brutal.
To start with, you can't even see your system very clearly, and often doing so requires altering its behaviour.
For example, in molecular biology, most great discoveries are made after some new technique is made to be able to observe smaller things.
But you often have to kill your cells to make those observations, which makes it very hard to understand how they work dynamically.
What we would really want would be to track every single protein as it goes about inside the cell. But that is likely an impossible dream.
The same for the brain. If we had observations of every neuron, how long would it take to understand it? Not long, people are really good at reverse engineering things when there is enough information available to do so, see also science is the reverse engineering of nature.
Then, even when you start to see the system, you might have a very hard time controlling it, because it is so fragile. This is basically the case of quantum computing in 2020.
It is for those reasons that deep tech is so exciting.
The next big things will come from deep tech. Failure is always a possibility, and you can't know before you try.
But that's also why its so fun to dare.
Stuff that Ciro Santilli considers "deep tech" as of 2020:
Applicaitons of power, we have to remember it is there to notice how awesome it is!
  • lightning
  • motors
  • sending nad receiving communication signals
  • computers, which in turn can do computations and improved communication
Most promising approaches as of 2020:
Video 1. Why Private Billions Are Flowing Into Fusion by Bloomberg (2022) Source.
  • Joint European Torus
  • General Fusion: compress with liquid metal. Intends to demo in JET site.
  • Helion Energy: direct fusion to electricity conversion without steam, direct from magnetic field movements
  • First Light: shoot microscopic objct at a target to crush it so much that fusion happens
It is interesting that there are several different approaches to the problem. This feels a bit like quantum computing's development at the same time, increases hope that at least one will work.
Once again, relies on superconductivity to reach insane magnetic fields. Superconductivity is just so important.
Ciro Santilli saw a good presentation about it once circa 2020, it seems that the main difficulty of the time was turbulence messing things up. They have some nice simulations with cross section pictures e.g. at: www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/937941.
Video 1. Inside JET: The world's biggest nuclear fusion experiment by Wired UK (2020) Source.
Operated by a hand crank.
This notation is designed to be relatively easy to write. This is achieved by not drawing ultra complex ASCII art boxes of every component. It would be slightly more readable if we did that, but prioritizing the writer here.
Two wires are only joined if + is given. E.g. the following two wires are not joined:
  |
--|--
  |
but the following are:
  |
--+--
  |
Simple symmetric components:
  • -, + and |: wire
  • A: AC source. Parameters:
    • Hz: frequency
    • V: peak voltage
    e.g.:
    A_1Hz_2V
    If only one side is given, the other is assumed to be at a ground G.
  • C: capacitor
  • G: ground. Often used together with D, e.g.:
    D_10---R_10---G
    means applying a voltage of 10 V across a 10 Ohm resistor, which would lead to a current of 1 A
  • L: inductor
  • MICROPHONE. As a multi-letter symmetric component, you can connect the two wires anywhere, e.g.
    ---MICROPHONE---
    or:
    |
    MICROPHONE
        |
  • SPEAKER
  • R: resistor
  • X: Josephson junction
Asymmetric components have multiple letters indicating different ports. The capital letter indicates the device, and lower case letters the ports. The wires then go into the ports:
  • aDc: diode
    • a: anode (where electrons can come in from)
    • c: cathode
    Sample usage in a circuit:
    --aDc--
    Can also be used vertically:
    |
    a
    D
    c
    |
    We can also change the port order, the device is still the same due to capital D:
    --cDa--
    
     |
    Dac--
    
     |
    Dca--
    
       |
    --caD
  • pDn: DC source. Ports:
    • p: positive
    • n: negative
    E.g. a 10 V source with a 10 Ohm resistor would be:
    +---pD_10_m---+
    |             |
    +----R_10-----+
    If only one side is given, the other is assumed to be at a the ground G. We can also omit p and m in that case and assume that p is the one used, e.g. the above would be equivalent to:
    D_10---R_10---G
  • sgTd: transistor
    • s: source
    • g: gate
    • d: gate
    Sample usage in a circuit:
    ---+
       |
    --sgTd--
    All the following are also equivalent:
       |
       g
    --sTd--
        |
    --Tsgd--
       |
  • dIs: electric current source. Electrons leave from s and go into d
  • pVn: Voltmeter. Ports:
    • p: positive
    • n: negative
    If we don't need to specify explicit positive and negative sides, we can just use:
    ---V---
    without any ports. This is notably often the case for AC circuits.
    Optionaly, we can also add the sides as in:
Numbers characterizing components are put just next to each component with an underscore. When there is only one parameter, standard units are assumed, e.g.:
+-----+
|     |
C_1p  R_2k
|     |
+-----+
means:
  • a capacitor with 1 pico Faraday
  • a resistor with 2 k Ohms
Micro is denoted as u.
Wires can just freely come in and out of specs of a component, they are then just connected to the component, e.g.:
D_10---R_10---G
means applying a voltage of 10 V across a 10 Ohm resistor, which would lead to a current of 1 A
If a component has more than two parameters, units are used to distinguish them when possible, e.g.:
A_1kV_2MHz
means an AC source with:
Video 1. Open Circuits book interview by CuriousMarc (2022) Source.
Main implementations: the same as electronic switches: vacuum tubes in the past, and transistors in the second half of the 20th century.
Video 1. How to make an LM386 audio amplifier circuit by Afrotechmods (2017) Source. Builds the circuit on a breadboard from minimal components, including one discrete transistor. Then plays music from phone through headset cables into a speaker.
Video 1. Finding Capacitance with an Oscilloscope by Jacob Watts (2020) Source. Good experiment.
Ideally can be thought of as a one-way ticket gate that only lets electrons go in one direction with zero resistance! Real devices do have imperfections however, so there is some resistance.
First they were made out of vacuum tubes, but later semiconductor diodes were invented and became much more widespread.
Figure 1. I-V curve of a diode. Source. This image shows well how the diode is only an approximation of the ideal one way device. Notably, there is this non-ideal voltage drop across the device, which can be modelled as constant. It is however an exponential in fact.
Video 1. Diodes Explained by The Engineering Mindset (2020) Source. Good video:
GPIO generally only supports discrete outputs.
But for some types of hardware, like LEDs and some motors, the system has some inertia, and if you switch on and off fast enough, you get a result similar to having an intermediate voltage.
So with pulse width modulation we can fake analog output from digital output in a good enough manner.

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