Cody'sLab had a nice 5 video series on making it at home! But the United States Government asked him to take it down as suggested at Video "What's Been Going On With Cody'sLab? by Cody'sLab (2019)" at
Here's a copy online as of 2020:
4 K. Enough for to make "low temperature superconductors" like regular metals superconducting, e.g. the superconducting temperature of aluminum if 1.2 K.
Contrast with liquid nitrogen, which is much cheaper but only goes to 77K.
Surprisingly, it can also become a superfluid even though each atom is a fermion! This is because of Cooper pair formation, just like in superconductors, but the transition happens at lower temperatures than superfluid helium-4, which is a boson.
Also sometimes called helium II, in contrast to helium I, which is the non-superfluid liquid helium phase.
Video 1. Superfluid helium Resonance Experiment by Dietterich Labs (2019) Source.
Video 1. Buckyballs (C60) by Periodic Videos (2010) Source. Actually shows them in a lab!
  • has a photo of the first effective production method, which passes a large current between two carbon rods
  • and forward cuts (their editing is very annoying) shows how fullerene dissolves in an organic solvent TODO name, sounds like thodium? and produces a violet solution, while graphite doesn't. A Ultrasonic bath is needed for the solution to form however.
  • fullerene is not a good lubricant despite being a little ball, because it is reactive and polymerises under pressure
Video 1. Endohedral Fullerenes by Dom Burges (2016) Source.
The layered one.
A single layer of graphite.
77K. Low enough for "high temperature superconductors" such as yttrium barium copper oxide, but for "low temperature superconductors", you need to go much lower, typically with liquid helium, which is likely much more expensive. TODO by how much?
Video 1. Where Do You Get Liquid Nitrogen? by The King of Random (2016) Source. He just goes to a medical gases shop in a local industrial estate and buys 20L for 95 dollars and brings it back on his own Dewar marked 35LD.
Video 2. Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch! by Veritasium (2019) Source. "From scratch" is perhaps a bit clickbaity, but I'll take it.
piezoelectric, and notably used in quartz clock.
Video 1. Danger by Bayway Refinery. Source. TODO year.
An alloy of iron and carbon. Because such allys have had such incredible historical importance due to their different properties, different phases of Fe-C have well known names such as steel
A phase of Fe-C characterized by the low ammount of carbon.
This is apparently the most important III-V semiconductor, it seems to actually have some applications, see also: gallium arsenide vs silicon.
The Supermen: The Story of Seymour Cray by Charles J. Murray (1997) page 4 mentions:
Cray wanted his new machine to employ circuits made from a material called gallium arsenide. Gallium arsenide had achieved limited success, particularly in satellite communications and military electronics. But no one had succeeded with it in anything so complicated as a computer. In the computer industry, engineers had developed a saying: "Gallium arsenide is the technology of the future," they would say. "And it always will be."
Second most important superconducting material: applications of superconductivity.
Stable isotope.
Highly radioactive isotope of caesium with half-life of 30.17 y. Produced from the nuclear fission of uranium, TODO exact reaction, not found in nature.
The fucked thing about this byproduct is that it is in the same chemical family as sodium, and therefore forms a salt that looks like regular table salt, and dissolves in water and therefore easily enters your body and sticks to things.
Another problem is that its half-life is long enough that it doesn't lose radioactivity very quickly compared to the life of a human person, although it is short enough to make it highly toxic, making it a terrible pollutant when released.
This is why for example in the goiânia accident a girl ended up ingesting Caesium-137 after eating an egg after touching the Caesium with her hands.
Figure 1. caesium-137 decay scheme. Source.
Video 1. One handful contaminated a city by Kyle Hill (2021) Source.
Not "Yt" because that is already "Yttrium". God.
Video 1. Hands: A Dublin Bookbinder. Source. Some awesome gold leaf action!
There are no stable isotopes.
The least unstable isotope, occurs as part of the uranium 238 decay chain.
Discovered by Marie Curie when she noticed that there was some yet unknown more radioactive element in their raw samples, after uranium had already been separated.
The uranium 238 decay chain is the main source of naturally occurring radium.
Video 1. The epic story of radium by Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (2013) Source.

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