- "An introduction to superconductivity" by Alfred Leitner originally published in 1965, source: www.alfredleitner.com/
- Isotope effect on the critical temperature. hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Solids/coop.html mentions that:
If electrical conduction in mercury were purely electronic, there should be no dependence upon the nuclear masses. This dependence of the critical temperature for superconductivity upon isotopic mass was the first direct evidence for interaction between the electrons and the lattice. This supported the BCS Theory of lattice coupling of electron pairs.
Actually goes into the equations.Notably, youtu.be/O_zjGYvP4Ps?t=3278 describes extremely briefly an experimental setup that more directly observes pair condensation.
- Cool CNRS video showing the condensed wave function, and mentioning that "every pair moves at the same speed". To change the speed of one pair, you need to change the speed of all others. That's why there's not energy loss.
andor.oxinst.com/learning/view/article/measuring-resistance-of-a-superconducting-sample-with-a-dry-cryostat Not a video, but well done, by Oxford Instruments.
Isn't that awesome!
The dream of course being room temperature and pressure superconductor.
Upside: superconducting above 92K, which is above the 77K of liquid nitrogen, and therefore much much cheaper to obtain and maintain than liquid helium.
Downside: it is brittle, so how do you make wires out of it? Still, can already be used in certain circuits, e.g. high temperature SQUID devices.
Discovered in 1988, the first high-temperature superconductor which did not contain a rare-earth element.
As of 2023 the most important ones economicaly were:
The main application is Magnetic resonance imaging. Both of these are have to be Liquid helium, i.e. they are not "high-temperature superconductor" which is a pain. One big strength they have is that they are metallic, and therefore can made into wires, which is crucial to be able to make electromagnetic coils out of them.
TODO, come on, Internet!
No, see: superconductor I-V curve.
- physics.stackexchange.com/questions/62664/how-can-ohms-law-be-correct-if-superconductors-have-0-resistivity on Physics Stack Exchange
Main theory to explain Type I superconductors very successfully.
TODO can someone please just give the final predictions of BCS, and how they compare to experiments, first of all? Then derive them.
High level concepts:
- the wave functions of pairs of electrons (fermions) get together to form bosons. This is a phase transition effect, thus the specific sudden transition temperature.
- the pairs form a Bose-Einstein condensate
- once this new state is reached, all pairs are somehow entangled into one big wave function, and you so individual lattice imperfections can't move just one single electron off trajectory and make it lose energy
A good summary from Wikipedia by physicist Andrew Whitaker:
at a junction of two superconductors, a current will flow even if there is no drop in voltage; that when there is a voltage drop, the current should oscillate at a frequency related to the drop in voltage; and that there is a dependence on any magnetic field
Some golden notes at True Genius: The Life and Science of John Bardeen page 224 and around. Philip W. Anderson commented:
As part of the course Anderson had introduced the concept of broken symmetry in superconductors. Josephson "was fascinated by the idea of broken symmetry, and wondered whether there could be any way of observing it experimentally."
By looking at the Josephson equations, we see that a positive constant, then just increases linearly without bound.
Therefore, from the first equation: .
This meas that we can use a Josephson junction as a perfect voltage to frequency converter.
Wikipedia mentions that this frequency is , so it is very very high, so we are not able to view individual points of the sine curve separately with our instruments.
Also it is likely not going to be very useful for many practical applications in this mode.
An I-V curve can also be seen at: Figure "Electron microscope image of a Josephson junction its I-V curve".
If you shine microwave radiation on a Josephson junction, it produces a fixed average voltage that depends only on the frequency of the microwave. TODO how is that done more preciesely? How to you produce and inject microwaves into the thing?
It acts therefore as a perfect frequency to voltage converter.
The Wiki page gives the formula: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josephson_effect#The_inverse_AC_Josephson_effect You get several sinusoidal harmonics, so the output is not a perfect sine. But the infinite sum of the harmonics has a fixed average voltage value.
And en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josephson_voltage_standard#Josephson_effect mentions that the effect is independent of the junction material, physical dimension or temperature.
TODO understand how/why it works better.
Two equations derived from first principles by Brian Josephson that characterize the device, somewhat like an I-V curve:
Is a fixed characteristic value of the physical construction of the junction.
A function defined by the second of the Josephson equations plus initial conditions.
It represents an internal state of the junction.
A device that exhibits the Josephson effect.
The inverse of the magnetic flux quantum.
- the basis for the most promising 2019 quantum computing implementation: superconducting quantum computer
- Josephson voltage standard: the most practical/precise volt standard, which motivated the definition of the ampere in the 2019 redefinition of the SI base units
- SQUID devices, which are:
The most practical/precise volt standard.
It motivated the definition of the ampere in the 2019 redefinition of the SI base units
Quick NIST article about it: www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2013/04/primary-voltage-standard-whole-world (archive)
Can be used as a very precise magnetometer.
Two parallel Josephson junctions.
In Ciro's ASCII art circuit diagram notation:
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