Name origin: amnion, a pellicle that covers embryos of both eggs and also during pregnancy.
Includes:
Does not include amphibians. If you include them, you have the tetrapods.
This being a class is bullshit because it is not a clade, notably birds are not considered reptiles, but they are clearly in the clade.
Mammals and a bunch of extinct animals that look more like mammals than reptiles.
TODO name: Wikipedia says "being with a fused arch" but what does that mean???
The weirdest mammal clade: they lay fucking eggs. Only 5 known species alive as of 2020.
Eggs are basal: they simply didn't evolve out of what other reptiles do. From which we conclude that milk came before eggs stopped.
So this is the most basal subclade of mammals.
Etymology: means "single hole" in Greek, because like other reptiles it has a single hole for shit, pee and fucking: the cloaca.
Every mammal except the weird monotremes, i.e. marsupials and the placentalia.
The name is completely random, "wild beast". Are platypuses not "wild beasts"? They have a freaking poison!!
They split up from the rest of the mammals after the monotremes.
Every other mammal has a placenta.
This baby in pouch thing just feels like a pre-placenta stage.
As of 2020, account for about 20% of the known mammal species!!! www.sciencefocus.com/nature/why-are-there-so-many-species-of-bat/ mentions some reasons:
  • they can fly, so they can move out further
  • their eating habits are highly specialized
Since rat and mouse are not scientifically specific names, we'll just use them interchangeably.
When one specific species is implied, we will mean Mus musculus by default.
Exciting... sometimes cruel. But too exciting not to do:
Databases and projects:
Databases and projects:
This is the level at which human and all extinct siblings lie, with no other extant species, all others were killed or fucked to death: Section "Interbreeding between archaic and modern humans".
Genome:
  • 3 Gbps
  • 20k genes
  • 37.2 trillion cells[ref]
wget ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/H_sapiens/annotation/GRCh38_latest/refseq_identifiers/GRCh38_latest_genomic.fna.gz
gunzip --keep GRCh38_latest_genomic.fna.gz
The key cladograms:
Video 1.
When We Took Over the World by PBS Eons (2019)
. Source.
Video 1.
When We Met Other Human Species by PBS Eons (2019)
. Source.
Video 1.
How Humans Lost Their Fur by PBS Eons (2020)
. Source. Says it is linked to bipedalism to help hunting in hot weather. But could only happen fully after the invention of fire, otherwise you'd be too cold at night.
The point of these is that they are good for transfection apparently.
20k genes, 3 billion base pairs. We can handle this!!!
This is really cool. Ciro Santilli would be tempted to participate, but his wife is not a fan, in part due to the loss of privacy of children. Maybe she is right...
Someone should implement a version of that where you can upload your privately sequenced genome and get analytics for free.
This was the first large part of the genome that was sequenced, in 1981: Cambridge Reference Sequence. Presumably they picked it because it is short and does not undergo crossover.
About 16.6 kbp:
TODO: many places say "exactly" 16,569, it seems that variable number tandem repeat are either rare or don't occur!
By Fred Sanger's group.
As mentioned by Craig Venter in 100 Greatest Discoveries by the Discovery Channel (2004-2005), the main outcomes of the project were:
  • it established the ballpark number of human genes
  • showed that human genomes are very similar across individuals.
Important predecessors:
This was one of the first notable country-led large scale sequencing efforts of the world.
UniProt human: www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9BYF1 It is interesting to see in the Mutagenesis how many known mutations can increase or decrease SARS-CoV-2 S protein binding affinity.

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